BORN, MAX (1882–1970), German physicist and Nobel Prize winner. A son of the anatomist Gustav Born, he was born in Breslau and lectured on physics in Berlin (1915), Frankfurt (1919), and Goettingen (1921). Although he had dissociated himself from the Jewish community, Born was dismissed from Goettingen in 1933 because of his Jewish origins. He settled in England working first at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, and then from 1936 lecturing in applied mathematics at Edinburgh University. On his retirement from teaching in 1953, he returned to Germany. Born played an important role in the development of modern theoretical physics. He developed the modern mathematical explanation of the basic properties of matter but his outstanding achievement was his work on quantum theory and the use of matrix computations. He was the first to recognize that the function of Schroedinger's waves could be explained as a statistical function which describes the probability of a certain behavior of a solitary molecule in space and time. He examined the problems of probability and wrote a number of books on physics, including Aufbau der Materie (19222), Atomtheorie des festen Zustandes (1923), Atommechanik (1925), Moderne Physik (1933), Atomic Physics (19474), and A General Kinetic Theory of Liquids (1949). Born was also concerned with the general philosophical problems of natural science, an interest reflected in his works The Restless Universe (1936) and Natural Philosophy of Cause and Chance (1949). His discussion with einstein (a close friend of his) on the meaning of cause and chance in modern science was summarized in his article "Physics and Metaphysics" (published in Penguin Science News, 17 (1950), 9–27). In 1954, Born and W. Bothe were awarded the Nobel Prize for physics for their work on the mathematical basis of quantum mechanics. Eight of Born's essays, revealing his enduring interest in the ethical problems underlying man's vast increase in power through science, were published in 1968 as My Life and My Views. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. Vogel, Physik und Philosophie bei Max Born (1968). (Maurice Goldsmith)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Born,Max — Born (bôrn), Max. 1882 1970. German born physicist. He shared a 1954 Nobel Prize for his pioneering work in quantum mechanics. * * * …   Universalium

  • Born, Max — born Dec. 11, 1882, Breslau, Ger. died Jan. 5, 1970, Göttingen, W.Ger. German physicist. He taught theoretical physics at the University of Göttingen from 1921 to 1933, when he fled to Britain. There he taught principally at the University of… …   Universalium

  • Born, Max — (1882 1970)    physicist; a key player in the development of quantum mechanics. A native of Breslau (now Poland s Wroclaw), he began university studies in his home city. Moving to Gottingen in 1904 to study with David Hilbert, he took a doctorate …   Historical dictionary of Weimar Republik

  • Born , Max — (1882–1970) German physicist Born was the son of an embryologist, a professor of anatomy at the University of Breslau (now Wrocław) in Poland. He was educated at the university in his native city of Breslau, and at the universities of Heidelberg …   Scientists

  • Born, Max — ► (1882 1970) Físico alemán. Desarrolló los fundamentos de la mecánica cuántica y la interpretación probabilística de la función de ondas. Fue premio Nobel de Física en 1954 por sus trabajos en mecánica cuántica. * * * (11 dic. 1882, Breslau,… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Born, Max — (1882–1970)    German physicist and Nobel laureate, 1954. The son of an anatomist, Born grew up in Breslau and lectured on physics in Berlin, Frankfurt and Goettingen. Though not a professing Jew, he was dismissed from Goettingen in 1933. He went …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Born, Max — (1882 1970)    German physicist. He was born in Breslau, and lectured on physics in Berlin, Frankfurt and Gottingen. He later moved to Britain and taught at Edinburgh University. On his retirement, he returned to Germany. He played a major role… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

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  • Max Born — (1882 1970) Born 11 December 1882(1882 12 11) …   Wikipedia

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